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Oncology treatment

Oncology treatment

Treatment regimens and effectiveness
Until recently, for a patient, a diagnosis of cancer sounded like a terrible death sentence and meant the most negative consequences. Fortunately, science does not stand still; new methods for identifying and treating malignant tumors are being developed and researched.

In addition to the classical methods: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, new techniques have been added. Therefore, a modern oncologist has at his disposal a sufficient arsenal to successfully combat this formidable disease and increase the chances of a favorable prognosis.

What cancer treatment is in demand in  Russia?

Modern cancer treatment regimens include various approaches that can be used both in combination and separately from each other. These methods include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, surgery and the latest developments, which we will discuss below.


Химиотерапия является распространенным методом лечения рака. Этот подход заключается в использовании лекарственных препаратов, которые ликвидируют злокачественные клетки или снижают скорость их роста.

Химиотерапия может быть проведена в виде инъекций, таблеток или капельниц.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses a special type of energy, electromagnetic radiation or beams of elementary nuclear particles that can destroy malignant cells. It can be carried out using external irradiation or by introducing radioactive materials into the body.


Immunotherapy aims to activate the body's immune system so it can fight cancer cells. This method may involve the use of various drugs that enhance the immune response.

Newer treatments include:

  • High intensity ultrasound radiation
  • Exposure of cancer cells to ultra-low temperatures
  • Laser therapy
  • Angiostatic drugs
  • Application of special anaerobic microorganisms
  • Stem cell treatment
In addition, prevention of the development of malignant neoplasms and their early detection play a key role in the fight against this disease. Regular medical examinations, tests and  screening tests can help detect cancer at an early stage, when treatment may be more effective.

It is also important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition, physical activity and giving up bad habits.
The use of modern cancer treatment methods increases the chances of defeating the disease. It is important to remember that each case of cancer is unique and it is important to work with medical specialists to develop an individualized treatment plan.

How effective is cancer treatment?

  • In  the success of oncology treatment and  patient survival depends on  the following main factors:
  • type of tumor cells
  • localization
  • timely diagnosis
  • individual characteristics of the body
  • treatment and  rehabilitation schemes
On average, the success of therapy is based on the five-year survival rate of patients, which according to statistics is:
  • 1
    at the first stage -
    more than 90%
  • 2
    at the second stage -
    more than 75%
  • 3
    at the third stage -
    more than 55%
  • 4
    at the fourth stage -
    more than 10%
Unfortunately, some patients refuse treatment or cannot afford therapy for financial reasons. A certain percentage of patients with suspected oncology postpone examination until the moment when therapy becomes ineffective.

Is it possible to completely cure cancer?

Some types of malignant tumors, such as lymphomas, respond well to antitumor treatment, and cancer patients have a long-term overall and relapse-free morbidity. With other tumors, stable long-term remission of the disease can be achieved.

Often, the view of the oncologist and the patient on the problem of cancer is very different.

Typically, oncologists believe that after complex therapy was carried out and the patient lived safely for five years without any signs of a tumor, he achieved stable remission of the disease. Unfortunately, there is always the possibility of developing relapses or other types of tumor.

What types of cancer have the best prognosis?

This category includes fairly common tumors that may have several treatment options. Many patients live with diagnoses such as:
  • mammary cancer
  • prostate cancer
  • kidney cancer
Rarer species are more difficult to treat because they have been less studied and doctors may not have as much experience diagnosing them. In addition,  depending on  the qualifications of the doctor, incorrect interpretation and  diagnosis are possible.

It is quite difficult to make a prognosis for the course of cancer, since success primarily depends on the stage at which the disease was detected. Unfortunately, many types of neoplasms are hardly diagnosed in the initial stages, so patients often receive treatment when the cancer has already progressed.

It is extremely important how quickly the patient begins treatment. It is not uncommon for a patient to be diagnosed and told that therapy needs to be started immediately, but the patient delays the decision for months. This is a dangerous practice that greatly worsens the prognosis in the future.


Surgery is one of the main types of cancer treatment. Depending on the type of disease and stage, surgery may be aimed at removing the entire tumor, a specific part, or the entire organ.
Can be divided into three groups:
For diagnostic purposes
They are carried out to diagnose, take a biopsy and determine the extent of cancer.
Radical operations
When it is necessary to remove the tumor completely. When examining the edges of the excision, no malignant cells are found there.
Palliative care
During surgery, the tumor is not removed, or only part of it is removed. Aimed at eliminating complications and temporarily alleviating the patient’s condition.
Surgery can be done alone or in combination with other cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy or immunotherapy. This depends on the individual characteristics of each patient and the characteristics of his disease.

Surgery may be associated with certain risks and complications, including bleeding, infection, organ dysfunction, etc. Therefore, it is important to perform the operation only if there are strict indications and under the supervision of an experienced surgeon.

Overall, cancer surgery is an effective method of controlling the disease, especially when combined with other methods. However, the success of the operation and its consequences depend on many factors, including the stage of the disease, its types, the patient's age and general health.
Modern oncology increasingly uses minimally invasive surgical methods. This allows you to preserve healthy tissue without compromising the integrity of the body. Many tumors can be removed laparoscopically through small incisions.

Chemotherapy use

This is a treatment method that is based on the use of medications that destroy or slow down the growth of malignant cells. Chemotherapy can be carried out  as a basic option or  in combination with other technologies.

Drugs are introduced into the patient's body through a vein, intramuscularly, or taken orally. They are distributed throughout the body and have an impact on malignant cells in any part of the body.

Chemotherapy is accompanied by some side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, changes in taste, and others. However, these effects can be reduced with appropriate drug support.

As a result of treatment, stable remission can be achieved with:
breast cancer
kidney cancer
prostate cancer and even in some patients with common melanoma of the skin

However, the effectiveness of treatment depends on  many factors, including the type and  stage of cancer, structural features of the tumor, the patient's age and  general health. The decision to use chemotherapy should be made specifically for each patient, taking into account his individual characteristics and characteristics of the disease.

Radiation therapy for oncology

Another common method of treating cancer is radiation therapy. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation to destroy tumors.

Ionizing radiation is directed at a specific area of the body where the tumor is located. Basically, two main types of therapy are used:
external irradiation, when a beam of rays is sent to the   tumor area using special equipment
internal irradiation, when, evenly spreading throughout the entire body, the source affects  cancer, destroying it

Radiation therapy may have some side effects, such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and changes in taste. The effectiveness of this cancer treatment method has been proven for various types of oncology, including breast, lung, prostate, cervical and others.


Immunotherapy is used as an additional treatment for cancer. This method is based on  activating the body's own immune system to  fight  cancer cells.

Immunotherapy is available as drugs that activate the immune system or as treatments that modify the patient's immune system. Different groups of drugs are used to put a “tag” on  cancer cells and  help the immune system recognize them.

The method can be effective for treating various types of cancer, including melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder, and brain cancer. However, the effectiveness of immunotherapy, like other methods, depends on many factors.

Use of targeted therapy

In the last decade, science has learned a lot about the mechanisms of cancer development, which has allowed us to open new directions in treatment and improve existing drugs.

Targeted therapy is a technique based on the use of medications aimed at specific molecules responsible for the growth and development of tumors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies are used.

In targeted therapy, drugs have different effects:
  • have a blocking effect on cancer cells, preventing them from multiplying
  • prevent the proliferation of blood vessels feeding the tumor
  • make tumor cells more sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy
  • provoke apoptosis of cancer cells

Targeted therapy has shown effectiveness in treating various types of cancer, including breast, prostate, kidney, and lymphoma. It can be combined with other traditional techniques or used as an independent remedy.

How to increase the effectiveness of treatment?

To increase the effectiveness of treatment, oncologists recommend following the recommendations:
  • 1
    Regularly undergo screening examinations for  early detection of cancer.
  • 2
    Strictly follow the treatment regimen and take medications in accordance with the instructions.
  • 3
    Lead a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition, moderate physical activity and giving up bad habits.
  • 4
    Maintain emotional and  psychological health, seek  help from  specialists if necessary.
  • 5
    Participate in  clinical studies of new cancer treatment methods.
  • 6
    Do not move from one clinic to another without completing the course of therapy.
It is very important that the patient takes a responsible approach to  treatment and  follows all the instructions of the attending physician. Only systemic, clearly planned therapy and  support from loved ones will help you take control of the disease and  achieve lasting remission.

Author of the article:

Aleksanyan Aleksan Zavenovich

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